The effects of air pollution with special emphasis on human health at Omduramn Industeria Area Khartoum State .

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Research type: Research Paper

Authors: Maarouf, Osman Adam .

Abstract: This study was conducted in Omdurman Industrial area to assess the effects of air pollution on residents living in the vicinity of the industrial area. Health effects were determined by using the air quality data from ambient monitoring stations located within the study area (11 stations). The air pollution data chosen for this study were the mean average concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, H2S and particulate matter. In addition to some environmental parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and water vapour pressure were considered. The community health data were obtained through interview of 500 households using systematic random sampling. 50 out of 125 industries were selected to measure their stack height. The study revealed that the ages of the heads of the households ranged between (26 - less than 66) years and the mean age was about 48 years. The educational levels of the heads of the households varied ranging from illitrate, Khalwa, elementary, intermediate, secondary, graduates, and post graduates. Nearly all of the heads of the households in the study area are married, and the average family size is found to be 7. The majority of the heads of the households work in private sector and their average income level was found to be about 130300 (Ls). Among the study population only a few of them practice smoking habit. The average duration of residence in the study area was found to be about 17 years. Few houses in the study area were completely enclosed and the houses ventilation varried ranging from good, medium and poor. About one quarter of the houses in the residential area were surrounded by trees; AZADRICHTA INDIICA and TERMINALIA CATAPA comprise the majority of trees that surrounding the houses and their average height was about 4 meters. Gas and charcoal comprise the majority of the energy source used for cooking in the study area. Few of the family members in the study area work in dusty or polluted environment. All of the residents in the study area were complaining from air pollution problems and the majority of them were complaining from smoke and noxious odours. Measurements of air pollutants in the study area revealed that there is no detection of NO, NO2 and H2S in the area. The average concentration of SO2 was below the levels indicated by air quality standards or guidelines. The average concentration of particulate matter was about 39 times that of the levels indicated by air quality standards or quidelines. The study revealed that there is no significant relationship between the average concentration of SO2 in north-south, northern west, and east-west directions (P greater than 0.05). There is significant relatinship between the average concentration of SO2 at north-east direction (P less than 0.05). The study also revealed that there is a significant relationship between the average concentrations of particulate matter in north-south, north-west and north-east directions (P less than 0.05). The study revealed that the average air temperatures was about 38.75??C, 34.25??C, 33.8??C and 33.33??C at northern, southern, western and eastern sides respectively. The average vapour pressure was about 15.1 mmHg, 7.9 mmHg and 5.97 mmHg at the northern, sourthern, eastern and western sides respectively. The average air velocity at the northern, southern, eastern and western sides was about 470.15 f/min, 459.12 f/min, 464.8 f/min respectively. The average relative humidity at the northern, southern, eastern and western sides was about 29.2 percent. 20.08 percent 14.66 percent and 17.32 percent respectively. More than half of the industries' stack heights ranged between (5 less than 9) meters and the average stack height was found to be about 9.5 meters. The study revealed that signs and symptoms associated with air pollutuin encountered in the study area were headache, sneezing and coughing, irritation of nose, eye watering, running nose, sore throat, sinuses clog up, difficulty in breathing and chest tightness. The frequency of occurrence of signs and symptoms varied ranging from intermittent to continuous and the time of complaint of signs and symptoms also varied ranging from early morning to night. The diseases associated with air pollution encountered in the study area were allergy, asthma, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular, tong cancer, and dermatitis, A few of those who have diseases associated with air pollutin practice smoking habit .